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• To Download — Second Edition of the Book "Finite Element Procedures" (4th printing)
You are welcome to download the second edition of the book, 4th printing, however, please note that the book is copyrighted and should only be used in the same manner as a purchased hardcopy of the book.
Improved versions will be made available here, from time to time, as the 5th printing, and so on.
"Finite Element Procedures", 2nd Edition (.pdf)
Solutions to exercises in the book "Finite Element Procedures", 2nd Edition, 2014 are given in this manual (.pdf)
The Chinese translation of the 2nd edition is also available: Vol. 1 Vol. 2
Following are more than 700 publications — that we know of — with reference to the use of ADINA. The pages give the Abstracts of some papers published since 1986 referring to ADINA. The most recent papers are listed first. All these papers may be searched using the box:

Finite element stress tensor fields interpolation and manipulation using 3D dual kriging
Poirier, C. (Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal); Tinawi, R. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 211222
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: Threedimensional dual kriging theory, commonly applied in geostatistics, is used in a novel way for the interpolation and manipulation of 3D stress tensor fields. The application of this technique provides a designer with a way of visualizing the results and an appreciation of the errors in the finite element model. Applications of this technique are described using simple as well as complex structures.
Keywords: Mathematical Techniques  Finite Element Method  StressesComputer Aided Analysis  EngineeringComputer Aided Design  Mines and Mining  Petroleum Engineering  Maps and Mapping
Secondary Keywords: Hydrology  Hydraulics  Stress Tensor Fields Interpolation  Kriging  Threedimensional Dual Kriging  Geostatistics
Material parameters periodontal ligament and stress profiles within the periodontal ligament
K.L. Andersen, E.H. Pedersen, and B. Melsen
Royal Dental College of Aarhus, Denmark
Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop;99:42740, 1991
Abstract: Levels and profiles of initial stress in the periodontal ligament after application of various force systems were studied. Two finiteelement models, based on sections of human autopsy material, were developed to simulate one full and one partial mandible. The validity of the finiteelement model was improved by identiiication of material parameters; the mechanical properties of the tissue were described by means of straingauge measurements of initial tooth movements in human autopsy material. The multiple modeling technique, in which data from a coarse global model are transferred to a more detailed one, was used to identify bone structure and boundary conditions. Parameters known to influence the results were varied to establish the validity of the finiteelement model. Iterative calculation methods were used to gain stable results. However, optimizing features of the bone ,structure and boundary conditions did not influence the results significantly. The elastic stiffness of the periodontal ligament was determined to 0.07 MPa and τ = 0.49 (τ being the Poisson's ratio). Stress profiles were obtained for various force systemsas in tipping, translation, and root movement. As we expected, there was a marked variation in the stress distribution from cervix to apex when tipping forces were applied. Bodily movement of the tooth produced an almost uniform stress distribution; root movement produced stress patterns opposite to those observed during tipping; and masticatory forces alone produced stress patterns almost identical to those achieved by masticatory force in combination with orthodontic forces.
Finite element method on vector processors
Weber, P. (Univ of Karlsruhe); Gross, L.; Knocke, A.; Sternecker, P.; Brandel, B.; Schoenauer, W. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 223235
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: The finite element analysis of large problems relies on the efficient use of supercomputers. Vectorization and parallelization therefore is an important issue in the future development of finite element programs. We report on the vectorization of ADINA [ADINA Manuals, ADINA R&D Inc.] for the Siemens/Fujitsu vector processors of the VP and VPEX series. Due to the data structure of ADINA the observed performance gains are mainly from the solution phase of ADINA. Highly optimized finite element code on vector processors has to take into account the specific hardware capabilities. We discuss the data structure of the finite element kernel program VECFEM, which is tailored for the architecture of vector processors. Performance data of the original and the adapted ADINA and of the VECFEM program are presented.
Keywords: Mathematical Techniques  Finite Element Method  Computer Aided Analysis  Computer Programming  Computers, Supercomputer  Computer Software
Secondary Keywords: Vectorization  Parallelization  Vector Processors  ADINA (Automatic Dynamic Incremental Nonlinear Analysis)  Finite Element Kernel Program VECFEM
Significance of meshfineness in accuracy of finite element analysis of hyperbolic cooling tower shells
Chowdhury, A. (Lehigh Univ); Kostem, C.N. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 237241
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: Increased dependence on finite element modelling of structures in practice has made awareness of error potential of these analyses essential. This concern is even more pertinent in case of shell structures, since finite element analysis results of these structures is more errorprone. In reported research, the effect of meshfineness of finite element models on accuracy of finite element analysis solutions is investigated for hyperbolic cooling tower shells. The sensitivity of the errors to geometry of the shell is also examined. Elastic material model and static gravity loading is used. The study findings indicate that under symmetric state of stress, inadequate meshfineness may cause significant error in the shell force estimate from finite element analysis. The accuracy of longitudinal shell force estimate is fairly insensitive to the geometry of the shell. However, even small changes in the shape may drastically affect the accuracy of meridional shell force estimates.
Keywords: Cooling Towers  Structural Analysis  Mathematical TechniquesFinite Element Method  Computer Aided Analysis  Mathematical Models  Elasticity  Gravitation
Secondary Keywords: Mesh Fineness  Hyperbolic Cooling Tower Shells
Numerical simulation of dolos drop tests
Tedesco, J.W. (Auburn Univ); Rosson, B.T.; McDougal, W.G. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 243255
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: A threedimensional finite element method (FEM) analysis is conducted to simulate dolos drop tests. The FEM analysis employs a nonlinear concrete material model and utilizes a contact surface at the base of the vertical fluke. The results of the analysis predict the dynamic states of stress in the dolos and the pattern of cracking in the unit.
Keywords: Hydraulic Structures  Computer Simulation  Concrete Construction  Concrete Products  Mathematical TechniquesFinite Element Method  StressesAnalysis  Computer Simulation
Secondary Keywords: Dolos Drop Tests  Numerical Simulation  Nonlinear Concrete Material Model  Crack Propagation  Vertical Flukes  Rigid Body Rotation
Comparison of computer codes for seismic analysis of dams
Singhal, A.C. (Arizona State Univ) Source: Computers and Structures, v 38, n 1, 1991, p 107112
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Abstract: An extensive set of computer studies has been made using the EAGD, SAP IV, and ADINA computer codes. Damreservoir interaction has been incorporated by two different methods: fluid element and discretized lumped water mass. Parametric studies have been made to investigate the effect of (a) water compressibility vs incompressibility, (b) flexible vs rigid foundation, (c) empty vs full reservoir, and (d) numerical technique on central processor execution time. It has been found that the alpha factor (reservoir absorption coefficient) used in the EAGD program has an influence on the individual modal response of the dam. However, the overall deflections and stresses are not very sensitive to the variation in the value of this alpha parameter. The deflections and stresses obtained from EAGD, which uses finite element simulation for the water reservoir, are compared with SAP IV and ADINA results with discretized lumped water masses. Seismic behavior of the Pine Flat Dam subjected to the Taft earthquake shows that the results of the compressible water model are almost the same as those of the incompressible water model. Lumped added water mass results are about twice as large as results obtained using the fluid element model. A summary of computer execution time is also provided for comparison of relative merits of various numerical techniques. It is noted that EAGD uses a Fast Fourier Transform algorithm whereas SAP IV and ADINA use time domain methods. Execution time for ADINA is three times longer than that for the SAP IV program. (17 refs.)
Keywords: Dams  Earthquake Resistance  Earthquake ResistanceComputer Aided Analysis  Computer SoftwareEvaluation  HydrodynamicsFluid Structure Interaction  Foundations  Mathematical TechniquesNumerical Methods
Secondary Keywords: Software Package EAGD  Software Package SAP IV  Software Package ADINA
Investigation of the thermomechanical response of a titanium aluminide/silicon carbide composite using a unified state variable model in ADINA
Sherwood, J.A. (Univ of New Hampshire); Boyle, M.J. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 257269
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: The stress response of a titanium aluminide/silicon carbidefiberreinforced metalmatrix composite has been studied. The investigation was conducted using a twodimensional axisymmetric finite element model of a unit cell of the composite. The model was generated with the ADINAIN finite element program preprocessor. A strainrate dependent unified state variable constitutive model was implemented into the ADINA finite element program to analyze the materials timedependent inelastic response. The composite system was subjected to various timedependent cooling profiles in an effort to reduce the residual stresses that initiate radial cracks in the matrix. The cracks originate at the fibermatrix interface as the material is cooled from its consolidation temperature to room temperature.
Keywords: Composite Materials  Stresses  Fracture Mechanics  Computer Simulation  StressesThermal  Silicon Carbide  Mathematical Models
Secondary Keywords: Titanium Aluminide  Fiber Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites  ADINAIN Finite Element Program Preprocessor  ADINA Finite Element Program  Cooling  Residual Stresses
Quality assurance for fracture mechanical finite element analyses
Mikkola, T.P.J. (Technical Research Cent of Finland); Niemi, H. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 271279
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: A program system for automated fracture mechanical analyses with threedimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models has been developed. The main application has been safety analyses of pressurized components of nuclear power stations such as pipes and pipe bends containing surface cracks. The system is being extended to surface cracks in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) nozzle area. A large matrix of varying surface crack sizes in a plate under tension has been analysed and the automatically generated mesh is shown to give good accuracy. Such tests cannot guarantee the same accuracy for general loading conditions and geometries. Methods are being developed for the accuracy assessment of the results and for directing the mesh refinement. Results of a test series with plane models are promising. In the mesh refinement element subdivision was used. The same accuracy assessment approach is applied also to 3D models.
Keywords: Fracture Mechanics  Computer Aided Analysis  PlatesCracks  Mathematical Models  Mathematical TechniquesFinite Element Method  Nuclear Power PlantsPressure Vessels  Piping Systems
Secondary Keywords: Automated Fracture Mechanical Finite Element Analysis  Safety Analyses  Pressurized Components  Pipes  Nozzles  Reactor Pressure Vessels
Hydrodynamic pressure in a damreservoir system
Mays, J.R. (Univ of Colorado); Roehm, L.H. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 281291
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: A comparison of three approaches to the solution of the damreservoir interaction problem is presented. A 400ft high concrete gravity dam, its reservoir and the rigid foundation are subjected to seismic ground motion. The computer programs ADINA5 and EAGD84 produced analyses which compared closely. Westergaard's added mass theory in general produced conservative results for both horizontal ground motion and the combined horizontal and vertical ground motion. Westergaard's theory produced results which were not comparable for the vertical only ground motion.
Keywords: Dams, Gravity  Computer Aided Analysis  Reservoirs  Seismic Waves  Earthquakes  Computer Programming  Dams, Concrete
Secondary Keywords: Concrete Gravity dams  Software Package ADINA5  Software Package EAGD84  Westergaard's Added Mass Theory  Ground Motion
Thermoelasticcreep analysis of maturing concrete
Carlton, D. (Taylor Woodrow Construction); Mistry, N. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 293302
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: The ADINA program has a creep material model based on strain hardening and effective stress approach. Taylor Woodrow had the opportunity to investigate aspects of concrete behaviour associated with creep and shrinkage particularly in early age concrete. The study has led to modifications to the creep model to address following aspects; linear dependency of stress, age and temperature dependency of properties, creep flow, delayed elasticity and transitional thermal creep. The proposed creep model is mainly based on CEBFIP 1978 recommendations. The paper highlights the mechanism of creep in concrete and proposes the procedure to implement in the code. Comparisons with published work are presented.
Keywords: Concrete  Creep  Computer Aided Analysis  Computer programming  Mathematical Models  Stresses  Thermoelasticity
Secondary Keywords: Software Package ADINA  Strain hardening  Creep Material Models  Shrinkage
Heat resistant concrete for airfield pavements. Preliminary numerical study
Malvar, L.J. (Univ of California); Hironaka, M.C. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 303311
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: Concrete airfield pavements subjected to the exhaust gas of the F/A18 aircraft auxiliary power unit experience cracking and spalling. A twostep finite element simulation of the airfield pavement yields the temperature distribution and the consequent stress field. It is shown that normal weight concrete pavements will deteriorate. A parameter study is then carried out to assess the influence of each concrete property on the thermal stress field. From this study, the adequacy of any type of concrete can be determined. In particular, the properties of alllightweight structural concrete are considered. It is shown that alllightweight structural concrete may provide a satisfactory solution, even when the pavement is initially frozen.
Keywords: Concrete  Heat resisting  Aircraft EnginesExhaust Gases  Airports  Pavements  Concrete Construction  Mathematical TechniquesFinite Element Method
Secondary Keywords: Airfield Pavements  Cracking  Spalling
Numerical analysis of high strain rate concrete direct tension tests
Tedesco, J.W. (Auburn Univ); Ross, C.A.; McGill, P.B.; O'Neil, B.P. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 313327
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: Direct tension tests of plain concrete specimens were conducted on a splitHopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) to investigate the effects of increasing strain rate on the tensile strength of concrete. A comprehensive finite element method (FEM) study was performed on the SHPB experiments. Both linear and nonlinear analyses were conducted. The results of the numerical analyses disclose the dynamic states of stress in the specimen prior to failure as well as the mode of failure.
Keywords: Concrete Testing  Tensile Tests  Mathematical TechniquesFinite Element Method  BarsConcrete  Stresses  Failure Analysis  Strain
Secondary Keywords: Numerical Analysis  Direct tension Tests  Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars
Calculation of shafts in deposits with regard to inperfections, buckling and viscoelastic material properties
Hock, K. (Bergische UnivGH Wuppertal); Langlie, C. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 329337
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: A typical application of the finite element method in civil engineering is presented. The response of a highdensity polyethylenedeposit shaft, modelled by 200 shell elements, to the special influences due to its positioning within the refuse body is investigated. It is shown that the finite element method is a proper instrument to evaluate the particular relevance of single influences.
Keywords: Structural Design  Computer Aided Design  Waste Disposal  Refuse Disposal  PolyethylenesHigh Density  Mathematical TechniquesFinite Element Method  Civil EngineeringComputer Applications
Secondary Keywords: Deposit Shafts  Shell Elements  Viscoelasticity  Buckling  Material Imperfections
Computeraided structure redesign for improving system dynamics and its application to flexible robot design
Rai, Sudhendu (Massachusetts Inst of Technology); Asada, Haruhiko Source: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Dynamic Systems and Control Division (Publication) DSC, v 33, Control of Systems with Inexact Dynamic Models, 1991, p 149159
CODEN: ASMDEV ISBN10: 0791808661
Conference: Winter Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Dec 16 1991, Atlanta, GA, USA Sponsor: ASME, Dynamic Systems & Control Div
Publisher: Publ by ASME
Abstract: A method for redesigning a mechanical structure to improve dynamic performance of electromechanical systems is presented. The polezero locations and other system characteristics are represented in relation to the structure geometry by using a finite element method. The inverse problem to obtain the structure geometry that satisfies desired system characteristics is solved. Given a desired polezero plot and characteristics specifications, the CAD system can find the appropriate structure geometry. First, the sensitivities of these system characteristics to changes in the structure geometry are evaluated. The modification of the structure geometry in order to obtain desired characteristics while satisfying constraints is obtained by using the pseudoinverse of the sensitivity matrix, eg. the Jacobian matrix. An efficient method is developed to reduce the large geometric design parameter space by using the singular value decomposition of the Jacobian matrix. A method for evaluating design tradeoffs among geometric design parameters and system characteristics and constraints is also developed by using the singular value decomposition. The method is implemented using ADINA as finite element modeller and solver and is applied to the design of a flexible robot arm.
Keywords: Robots  Computer Aided Design  Dynamics  Mathematical TechniquesFinite Element Method  Electromechanical Devices  RobotsArms
Secondary Keywords: Flexible Robots  Jacobian Matrix
Shearfatigue behaviour of steel fiber reinforced concrete beams
Kwak, KaeHwan; Suh, June; Hsu, ChengTsu Thomas Source: ACI Structural Journal (American Concrete Institute), v 88, n 2, MarApr, 1991, p 155160
ISSN: 08893241 CODEN: ASTJEG
Abstract: Recently the use of steel fibers has been increased in flexural members and columns of such concrete structures subjected to cyclic loadings as bridge decks, highway roads, runways of airport, and buildings. However, few experimental tests have been carried out under fatigue loading. In the present study, reinforced concrete beams with fiber volume fractions of 1 and 2 percent, with and without stirrups, were investigated. In fatigue tests, it was found that the failure of the beam is usually due to breaking of fibers rather than fiber pullout. A comparison of experiments and numerical analysis using a nonlinear finite element method program (ADINA) is also presented. (6 refs.)
Keywords: Beams and Girders  Concrete  Steel  Concrete ConstructionReinforced Concrete  ColumnsConcrete  StressesShear  Fatigue of Materials
Secondary Keywords: Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams  Nonlinear Finite Element Method Program ADINA  Numerical Analysis  Bridge Decks  Highway Pavements  Airport Runways
Simulation of mixed mode fatigue crack growth
Reimers, P. (IWiS GmbH) Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 339346
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: The computation process including ADINA for predicting crackpath and structure lifetime under mixed mode loading is presented. Using the results of a FEM analysis, the Jintegral is computed. The separation into J_{I} and J_{II} leads, in the case of linear elastic material behaviour, to the stress intensity factors K_{I} and K _{II} .The crack deflection angle j_{0} is determined by the criterion of maximum stress in tangential direction. An assumed crack increment, Da, for each computing cycle delivers an estimation for the number of load cycles, DN, using a modified Paris law with a cyclic comparative stress intensity factor DK_{v}. Results for a CTSspecimen made of PMMA are presented and compared with experimental results.
Keywords: Structural Analysis  Computer Aided Analysis  Fracture Mechanics  BuildingsFailure  Fatigue of Materials  Polymethyl Methacrylates  Computer Programming
Secondary Keywords: Software Package ADINA  PMMA  Fatigue Crack Growth  Computer Simulation  Stress Intensity factors
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